Publications & References

[Xilinx Inc12]

Virtex-6 FPGA Configurable Logic Block User Guide. Xilinx Inc, ug364 edition, feb 2012. URL:


Mustafa Abbas. System level communication challenges of large fpgas. Master's thesis, University of Toronto, 2019. URL:


Aman Arora, Andrew Boutros, Daniel Rauch, Aishwarya Rajen, Aatman Borda, Seyed A. Damghani, Samidh Mehta, Sangram Kate, Pragnesh Patel, Kenneth B. Kent, Vaughn Betz, and Lizy K. John. Koios: a deep learning benchmark suite for fpga architecture and cad research. In International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL). 2021.


V. Betz and J. Rose. Cluster-based logic blocks for fpgas: area-efficiency vs. input sharing and size. In Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 551–554. 1997. doi:10.1109/CICC.1997.606687.


Vaughn Betz. Architecture and CAD for the Speed and Area Optimization of FPGAs. PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 1998.


Vaughn Betz and Jonathan Rose. Directional bias and non-uniformity in fpga global routing architectures. In Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-aided Design, ICCAD '96, 652–659. Washington, DC, USA, 1996. IEEE Computer Society. doi:10.1109/ICCAD.1996.571342.


Vaughn Betz and Jonathan Rose. On biased and non-uniform global routing architectures and cad tools for fpgas. CSRI Technical Report 358, University of Toronto, 1996. URL:


Vaughn Betz and Jonathan Rose. Vpr: a new packing, placement and routing tool for fpga research. In Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications, FPL '97, 213–222. London, UK, 1997. Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/3-540-63465-7_226.


Vaughn Betz and Jonathan Rose. Automatic generation of fpga routing architectures from high-level descriptions. In Int. Symp. on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, FPGA, 175–184. New York, NY, USA, 2000. ACM. doi:10.1145/329166.329203.


Vaughn Betz, Jonathan Rose, and Alexander Marquardt. Architecture and CAD for Deep-Submicron FPGAs. Kluwer Academic Publishers, mar 1999. ISBN 0792384601.


S. Brown, R. Francis, J. Rose, and Z. Vranesic. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992. ISBN 978-0-7923-9248-4.


Yao-Wen Chang, D. F. Wong, and C. K. Wong. Universal switch modules for fpga design. ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst., 1(1):80–101, January 1996. doi:10.1145/225871.225886.


C. Chiasson and V. Betz. Coffe: fully-automated transistor sizing for fpgas. In 2013 International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology (FPT), volume, 34–41. Dec 2013. doi:10.1109/FPT.2013.6718327.


S. Cho, S. Chatterjee, A. Mishcenko, and R. Brayton. Efficient fpga mapping using priority cuts. In FPGA. 2007.


J. Cong and Y. Ding. Flowmap: an optimal technology mapping algorithm for delay optimization in lookup-table based fpga designs. Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 13(1):1–12, Jan 1994. doi:10.1109/43.273754.


R. Fung, V. Betz, and W. Chow. Slack allocation and routing to improve fpga timing while repairing short-path violations. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 27(4):686–697, April 2008. doi:10.1109/TCAD.2008.917585.


Chun Hok Ho, Chi Wai Yu, Philip Leong, Wayne Luk, and Steven J. E. Wilton. Floating-point fpga: architecture and modeling. IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst., 17(12):1709–1718, December 2009. doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2008.2006616.


P. Jamieson, K. Kent, F. Gharibian, and L. Shannon. Odin ii-an open-source verilog hdl synthesis tool for cad research. In International Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, 149–156. 2010. doi:10.1109/FCCM.2010.31.


V. Betz K. Talaei Khoozani, A. Ahmadian Dehkordi. Titan 2.0: enabling open-source cad evaluation with a modern architecture capture. International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications, 2023.


Julien Lamoureux and Steven J. E. Wilton. Activity estimation for field-programmable gate arrays. In International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications, 1–8. 2006. doi:10.1109/FPL.2006.311199.


G. Lemieux, E. Lee, M. Tom, and A. Yu. Direction and single-driver wires in fpga interconnect. In International Conference on Field-Programmable Technology, 41–48. 2004. doi:10.1109/FPT.2004.1393249.


Jason Luu, Nooruddin Ahmed, Kenneth B. Kent, Jason Anderson, Jonathan Rose, Vaughn Betz, Jeffrey Goeders, Michael Wainberg, Andrew Somerville, Thien Yu, Konstantin Nasartschuk, Miad Nasr, Sen Wang, and Tim Liu. VTR 7.0: Next Generation Architecture and CAD System for FPGAs. ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems, 7(2):1–30, jun 2014. doi:10.1145/2617593.


Jason Luu, Jason Anderson, and Jonathan Rose. Architecture description and packing for logic blocks with hierarchy, modes and complex interconnect. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM/SIGDA International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, FPGA '11, 227–236. New York, NY, USA, 2011. ACM. doi:10.1145/1950413.1950457.


Jason Luu, Ian Kuon, Peter Jamieson, Ted Campbell, Andy Ye, Wei Mark Fang, and Jonathan Rose. Vpr 5.0: fpga cad and architecture exploration tools with single-driver routing, heterogeneity and process scaling. In Proceedings of the ACM/SIGDA International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, FPGA '09, 133–142. New York, NY, USA, 2009. ACM. doi:10.1145/1508128.1508150.


A Marquardt, V. Betz, and J. Rose. Using cluster-based logic blocks and timing-driven packing to improve fpga speed and density. In FPGA, 37–46. 1999. doi:10.1145/296399.296426.


Alexander Marquardt, Vaughn Betz, and Jonathan Rose. Timing-driven placement for fpgas. In Proceedings of the 2000 ACM/SIGDA Eighth International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, FPGA '00, 203–213. New York, NY, USA, 2000. ACM. doi:10.1145/329166.329208.


K. E. Murray, S. Zhong, and V. Betz. Air: a fast but lazy timing-driven fpga router. In To appear in Asia Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC). 2020. doi:.


K.E. Murray, S. Whitty, S. Liu, J. Luu, and V. Betz. Titan: enabling large and complex benchmarks in academic cad. In Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), 2013 23rd International Conference on, 1–8. Sept 2013. doi:10.1109/FPL.2013.6645503.


Kevin E. Murray, Scott Whitty, Suya Liu, Jason Luu, and Vaughn Betz. Timing-driven titan: enabling large benchmarks and exploring the gap between academic and commercial cad. ACM Trans. Reconfigurable Technol. Syst., 8(2):10:1–10:18, March 2015. doi:10.1145/2629579.


Oleg Petelin. Cad tools and architectures for improved fpga interconnect. Master's thesis, University of Toronto, 2016. URL:


J. Pistorius, M. Hutton, A. Mishcenko, and R. Brayton. Benchmarking method and designs targeting logic synthesis for fpgas. In IWLS, 230–237. 2007.


Jonathan Rose, Jason Luu, Chi Wai Yu, Opal Densmore, Jeffrey Goeders, Andrew Somerville, Kenneth B. Kent, Peter Jamieson, and Jason Anderson. The vtr project: architecture and cad for fpgas from verilog to routing. In Proceedings of the ACM/SIGDA International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, FPGA '12, 77–86. New York, NY, USA, 2012. ACM. doi:10.1145/2145694.2145708.


Berkeley Logic Synthesis and Verification Group. Abc: a system for sequential synthesis and verification. URL:


S. Wilton. Architectures and Algorithms for Field-Programmable Gate Arrays with Embedded Memories. PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 1997. URL:


Clifford Wolf. Yosys open syynthesis suite. URL:


S. Yang. Logic Synthesis and Optimization Benchmarks User Guide 3.0. Technical Report, MCNC, 1991.


H. Youssef, R. B. Lin, and E. Shragowitz. Bounds on net delays for vlsi circuits. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 39(11):815–824, Nov 1992. doi:10.1109/82.204129.


K. E. Murray, T. Ansell, K. Rothman, A. Comodi, M. Elgammal, and V. Betz. Symbiflow & vpr: an open-source design flow for commercial and novel fpgas. IEEE Micro, ():1–1, 2020.